Database Overview

The following spreadsheet is a database of references that map various spaceflight stressors to human health and capability impacts. The column headings provide explanations for the type of data we collect on each reference and how we categorize each finding. Often times one source will have multiple findings regarding a specific stressor and how it may impact more than one health or capability. We try to decompose the stressor to the most basic element, but often, it is difficult to reduce it down to a specific point source. For example, spaceflight is considered a stressor, but it entails several elements that are hard to dissociate such as high workload, inconsistent lighting that affects the crew's circadian rhythm, and high carbon dioxide levels.  

Measure/Methods of CapabilityCategorySubcategoryMapping to Capabilities/Health ListCrew Capability/HealthRate of ChangeDefinition of CapabilityImpact to CapabilityImpact ValueStressor1Stressor2Stressor3Stressor TypeDefinition of StressorStressor MeasureSourceSource LevelData TypeSubjective/ Objective?Category LevelNotesTest Subjects?Spaceflight, Analog, or Terrestrial Relevance
Success of reaching top of Mount DenaliPhysiologyMusculoskeletalLocomotionLocomotion This measured success of hiker of reaching top of Mt. Denali (carrying heavy pack while hiking in extreme cold and low oxygen environment)Intravascular dehydration was found in approx. half of technical high-altitude mountaineers, but hydration status was not significantly associated with summit success0DehydrationHigh AltitudeHypoxic < ppO2 = 2.1psiEnvironment/Operations/Medical Measured by inferior vena cava size and collapsibility index (IVC-CI) on ultrasound at rest and urine specific gravity (SG)Ladd2016PrimaryMeasuredOI Data collected on 111 participants out of 121 of those 105 had complete hydration data; Excluded people with past medical history of cardiopulmonary issues, and people who took too long to reach Camp 14Terrestrial
Measured by exposure to a sensory stimulus and the subject's response to the stimulus. Include equipment where subject expected to respond to auditory or visual stimuli. Tests audio-visual psychomotor responseCognitionPsychomotor ResponseSensory-Motor SpeedReaction Time Visual reaction time of foot; Visual reaction time of hand; Auditory reaction time of foot; Auditory reaction time of handFrom mean time in milliseconds (S.D.) 0.77(0.36) to 0.8(0.27); From mean time in milliseconds (S.D.) 0.74(0.24) to 0.68 (0.22); From mean time in milliseconds (S.D.) 1.13(0.6) to 1.26(0.5); From mean time in milliseconds (S.D.) 1.34 (0.58) to 1.31(0.56)0HeatDesert Military Station Environment/OperationsAt 42-43*CTemperature measured with hygro thermometer; humidity measured (Feb: 26-30%, Jun: 28-31%) assumed not a major impact since little differenceSaini2017PrimaryMeasuredOINo impact discussion points towards simple tasks that might not be affected by heat100 healthy soldiers between 20-30 yrs, who had spent min of 1 year in desert conditions prior to the induction of the study; tested Feb (25-28*C) and June (across 42*C)Terrestrial
Trail making test with two parts A & B. Time taken by subject measured using stopwatch; also measured Trail Shift (time difference between Time B minus Time A)CognitionProcessingVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Visual Search, Scanning, Speed of Processing, Executive Functions The test can provide information about visual search speed, scanning, speed of processing, mental flexibility, as well as executive functioningSpeed for both tests slowed down from Test A mean score (S.D.) of 25.78 (7.95) to 29.33 (8.54) and Test B from 57.24(18.09) and 69.47(14.39)-1HeatDesert Military Station Environment/OperationsAt 42-43*CTemperature measured with hygro thermometer; humidity measured (Feb: 26-30%, Jun: 28-31%) assumed not a major impact since little differenceSaini2017PrimaryMeasuredOI 100 healthy soldiers between 20-30 yrs, who had spent min of 1 year in desert conditions prior to the induction of the study; tested Feb (25-28*C) and June (across 42*C)Terrestrial
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) "neuropsychological test of "set-shifting", i.e. the ability to display flexibility in the face of changing schedules of reinforcement. The WCST was written by David A. Grant and Esta A. Berg." (Wikipedia)CognitionFrontal LobeAbstract ReasoningExecutive Functions Measured by total errors, which can be split into perseverative errors and non-perseverative errorsIncreased total errors, but more specifically, the increase was seen in the perseverative errors-1HeatDesert Military Station Environment/OperationsAt 42-43*CTemperature measured with hygro thermometer; humidity measured (Feb: 26-30%, Jun: 28-31%) assumed not a major impact since little differenceSaini2017PrimaryMeasuredOI 100 healthy soldiers between 20-30 yrs, who had spent min of 1 year in desert conditions prior to the induction of the study; tested Feb (25-28*C) and June (across 42*C)Terrestrial
Post Graduate Institute (PGI) memory scaleCognitionPattern RecognitionPattern RecognitionRecognition  From mean score (S.D.) 9.96(0.2) to 9.48(0.65)-1HeatDesert Military Station Environment/OperationsAt 42-43*CTemperature measured with hygro thermometer; humidity measured (Feb: 26-30%, Jun: 28-31%) assumed not a major impact since little differenceSaini2017PrimaryMeasuredOI 100 healthy soldiers between 20-30 yrs, who had spent min of 1 year in desert conditions prior to the induction of the study; tested Feb (25-28*C) and June (across 42*C)Terrestrial
Post Graduate Institute (PGI) memory scaleCognitionMemoryWorking MemoryVisual Retention/ Verbal Retention of Dissimilar Pairs/ Verbal Retention of Similar Pairs; Immediate Recall; Delayed Recall  From mean score (S.D.) of 12.88(0.33) to 11.24(2.31); From mean score (S.D.) of 14.84(0.37) to 10.44(2.48); From mean score (S.D.) 5.00(0) to 4.28(0.46); From mean score (S.D.) of 9.48(1.94) to 6.52(1.94); From mean score (S.D.) of 11.88(0.44) to 8.72(0.84)-1HeatDesert Military Station Environment/OperationsAt 42-43*CTemperature measured with hygro thermometer; humidity measured (Feb: 26-30%, Jun: 28-31%) assumed not a major impact since little differenceSaini2017PrimaryMeasuredOI 100 healthy soldiers between 20-30 yrs, who had spent min of 1 year in desert conditions prior to the induction of the study; tested Feb (25-28*C) and June (across 42*C)Terrestrial
Post Graduate Institute (PGI) memory scaleCognitionAttention and concentrationAttentionAttention and Concentration  From mean score (S.D.) in Feb of 9.6 (1.82) to June of 8.96(1.77) with P value (a =0.05) 0.013-1HeatDesert Military Station Environment/OperationsAt 42-43*CTemperature measured with hygro thermometer; humidity measured (Feb: 26-30%, Jun: 28-31%) assumed not a major impact since little differenceSaini2017PrimaryMeasuredOI 100 healthy soldiers between 20-30 yrs, who had spent min of 1 year in desert conditions prior to the induction of the study; tested Feb (25-28*C) and June (across 42*C)Terrestrial
Measured from polygraphs; Total Sleep Time/ Time in Bed; Polygraphs obtained in 3 phases (flight day 3-30) for nights 3, 4, 16, 17, 23, 29; flight day 183-215 (nights 183-4, 191-2, 196-7, 205-6, 213, 215) and flight days 395-425 (nights 395-6, 403, 405, 410-11, 416-7,424-5)PhysiologyCircadian RhythmSleep QualitySleep Latency/Sleep Efficiency; Total Sleep Time (TST) Time to REM sleep; Ratio of sleep time to time in bed; Measures quantity of sleepAppears to have a sharp increase during Phase 2 (Days 183-215); but also dependent on sleep structure; Ratio of sleep time to time in bed; For first 30 days, slept on average half an hour less than on ground before mission; but for later stages total sleep time increased by an hour to more than 7 hoursALong-duration Spaceflight MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Gundel2001PrimaryMeasuredOII 4 astronauts (1 setting record was 52 y other 3 were: 39, 47, 53) Polygraphies obtained in 3 phases (flight day 3-30) for nights 3, 4, 16, 17, 23, 29; flight day 183-215 (nights 183-4, 191-2, 196-7, 205-6, 213, 215) and flight days 395-425 (nights 395-6, 403, 405, 410-11, 416-7,424-5)Spaceflight
Body Temperature measured by Oxford medilog 8-channel recorder continuous body temp reading; and redundant rectal thermistor probePhysiologyCircadian RhythmSleepCircadian Rhythm Circadian phases were estimated using body temperature curvesNo indication for a circadian free-run were found0Long-duration SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment/Operations  Gundel2001PrimaryMeasuredOII 4 astronauts (1 setting record was 52 y other 3 were: 39, 47, 53) Polygraphies obtained in 3 phases (flight day 3-30) for nights 3, 4, 16, 17, 23, 29; flight day 183-215 (nights 183-4, 191-2, 196-7, 205-6, 213, 215) and flight days 395-425 (nights 395-6, 403, 405, 410-11, 416-7,424-5)Spaceflight
Marksmanship (8 shots at a target as quickly and accurately as possible)PhysiologyFine Motor ControlFine Motor ControlMarksmanship  No significant effects of caffeine on any marksmanship parameter1Sleep DeprivationHigh WorkloadCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Stanford sleepiness scale-self-report scale of individual's sleepinessPhysiologyCircadian RhythmSleep QualitySleepiness  Reported they were less sleepy1Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredSI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Profile of Moods (measures mood state)PsychologyMoodAffective Mood StateMood  Feeling of Fatigue was reduced; Lowered levels of feeling tension, depression, anger, confusion and increased feelings of vigor (but not statistically significant)1Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredSI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Repeated acquisition test -volunteer learns a sequence of 12 key presses using four arrow keys (correct responses filled up 1/12 of a rectangle from right to left; had to learn responses via trial and error (15 trials),CognitionMemoryWorking MemoryShort Term Memory  Significant improvement in time-to-completion (1hr post admin) due to caffeine, lowered incorrect response and after 8hr post admin still showed improvements compared to placebo1Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Repeated acquisition test -volunteer learns a sequence of 12 key presses using four arrow keys (correct responses filled up 1/12 of a rectangle from right to left; had to learn responses via trial and error (15 trials),CognitionAttentionFine Motor ControlMotor Learning  Significant improvement in time-to-completion (1hr post admin) due to caffeine, lowered incorrect response and after 8hr post admin still showed improvements compared to placebo1Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Matching-to sample test (volunteer responds by selecting correct 8x8 matrix of red and green blocks in checkerboard pattern that matched original matrix (20 trials, 10 at each delay, 15s for it to time out)CognitionProcessingPattern RecognitionPattern Recognition  No significant effects of caffeine helping on this task (thought orthogonal components analysis detected linear dose-related effect of caffeine at 1hr post administration for reduced time out errors)0Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Matching-to sample test (volunteer responds by selecting correct 8x8 matrix of red and green blocks in checkerboard pattern that matched original matrix (20 trials, 10 at each delay, 15s for it to time out)CognitionAttentionSpatial LearningShort-term Spatial Working Memory  No significant effects of caffeine helping on this task (thought orthogonal components analysis detected linear dose-related effect of caffeine at 1hr post administration for reduced time out errors)0Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Four-choice visual reaction time - present series of visual stimuli at four spatial locations, subject indicate the correct spatial locationCognitionVisionSensory-Motor SpeedReaction Time  Improved performance from baseline (dose-related effect); on average tenfold decrease in premature errors between placebo group and 200 and 300 mg group; but no effects measured 8 hrs post administration)1Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Scanning Visual Vigilance Test - detect faint stimulus that appeared randomly on screen for 2s (session lasted 15 min)CognitionAttentionVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Visual Vigilance  Caffeine produced significant beneficial, dose-related effects including increase in number of correct responses and decrease in response time (1hr post administration and 8 hrs)1Sleep DeprivationOperational StressCaffeineEnvironment/Operations/Medical  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Marksmanship (8 shots at a target as quickly and accurately as possible)PhysiologyFine Motor ControlFine Motor ControlMarksmanship  Reduced performance as measured by distance from center of mass, shot group tightness, sighting time, number of missed targets-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Stanford sleepiness scale-self-report scale of individual's sleepinessPhysiologyCircadian RhythmFatigue/Sleepiness LevelSleepiness  Deteriorated; increases in depression, fatigue, confusion, and sleepiness-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredSI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Profile of Moods (measures mood state)PsychologyMoodAffective Mood StateMood  Deteriorated; increases in depression, fatigue, confusion, and sleepiness-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredSI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Repeated acquisition test -volunteer learns a sequence of 12 key presses using four arrow keys (correct responses filled up 1/12 of a rectangle from right to left; had to learn responses via trial and error (15 trials),CognitionAttentionFine Motor ControlMotor Learning  Impaired with incorrect responses, as well as time-to-completion increasing-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Matching-to sample test (volunteer responds by selecting correct 8x8 matrix of red and green blocks in checkerboard pattern that matched original matrix (20 trials, 10 at each delay, 15s for it to time out)CognitionProcessingPattern RecognitionPattern Recognition  Significantly impaired (without caffeine); reduced number of correct responses, reaction time increased, and time-out errors increased-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Matching-to sample test (volunteer responds by selecting correct 8x8 matrix of red and green blocks in checkerboard pattern that matched original matrix (20 trials, 10 at each delay, 15s for it to time out)CognitionAttentionWorking MemoryShort-term Spatial Working Memory  Significantly impaired (without caffeine); reduced number of correct responses, reaction time increased, and time-out errors increased-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Four-choice visual reaction time - present series of visual stimuli at four spatial locations, subject indicate the correct spatial locationCognitionVisionSensory-Motor SpeedReaction Time As measured by four-choice reaction time (# of correct hits, latency, premature errors, timeout errors)Reaction Time increased from 0.2 to 1.2 seconds-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Scanning Visual Vigilance Test - detect faint stimulus that appeared randomly on screen for 2s (session lasted 15 min)CognitionAttentionVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Visual Vigilance Measured by scanning visual attention test; characterized by number of hits, false alarms and response timeReduced from 90% correct to 53% correct-1Sleep DeprivationOperational Stress Environment/Operations  Lieberman2002PrimaryMeasuredOI 68 Male US Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 hr sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressorsTerrestrial
Venous blood drawn every 2 hours during waking (0800-0000 hrs); blood samples analyzed for plasma cortisol, PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, and natural killer(NK) cell activityPhysiologyImmune SystemMeasure of Immune FunctionNK Cell Activity/Lymphocyte Blastogenesis Blastogenesis caused by PHA-induced and PWN-inducedNK cell activity peaked at baseline sleep onset then declined during baseline sleep. During Sleep Deprivation, NK activity increased; but not replicated in a second report for only 40 hours of sleep deprivation (Moldofskey et al 1989); Both PHA-induced and PWM-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis increased during baseline sleep. PWM induced blastogenesis increased during the night of sleep deprivation, while PHA-induced blastogenesis decreased. Both decreased further during recovery sleepASleep Deprivation  Environment/Operations Graphic representation by (Moldofsky et al, 1989)Dinges1995SecondaryMeasuredOIIIThe information is based on a review of Moldofsky et al (1989)6 male subjects underwent 64 hours of total sleep deprivationTerrestrial
Blood samples collected once a day at 1230 hours after 28 and 76 hours of sleep deprivation and then at 5 days post-recoveryPhysiologyImmune SystemMeasure of Immune FunctionInterferon production Assessed by adding 100 hemagglutination units of Sendai virus per ml bloodInterferon production increased in absolute values during and after sleep deprivation; increase was especially marked in interferon production per lymphocyte on post-recovery day 5 (Palmblad et al 1976)1Sleep Deprivation  Environment/Operations  Dinges1995SecondaryMeasuredOIIIThis information was a review of Palmblad et al's work in 19768 healthy women for 77 hours of simulated battlefield environment (included quasi-continuous battle noise at 95 dB and required subjects to fire an electronic rifle)Terrestrial
Blood samples collected once a day at 1230 hours after 28 and 76 hours of sleep deprivation and then at 5 days post-recoveryPhysiologyImmune SystemNumber of White Blood CellsImmune System Cell Counts  No statistically significant changes in number of circulating polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, monocytes, or B-lymphocytes during or after sleep deprivation (Palmblad et al 1976)0Sleep Deprivation  Environment/Operations  Dinges1995SecondaryMeasuredOIIIThis information was a review of Palmblad et al's work in 19768 healthy women for 77 hours of simulated battlefield environment (included quasi-continuous battle noise at 95 dB and required subjects to fire an electronic rifle)Terrestrial
Blood samples collected throughout the test and post sleep deprivationPhysiologyImmune SystemMeasure of Immune FunctionNK Cell Activity Natural Killer (NK) cell activity, indicates cytotoxicityNK activity elevates after two nights (but not one night) of sleep deprivation-1Sleep Deprivation  Environment/Operations number of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredOIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 males, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
Blood samples collected throughout the test and post sleep deprivationPhysiologyImmune SystemNumber of White Blood CellsTotal White Blood Cell Count  Total WBC counts increased across days of sleep loss and partially returned to pre-deprivation levels after recovery sleep; significant increases observed for the number of granulocytes and monocytes but not for lymphocytes (B or T), or eosinophils.1Sleep Deprivation  Environment/Operations number of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredOIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 maes, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), look for number of lapsesCognitionAttentionAlertness LevelVigilance  Lapses (reaction times >/= 500 ms) increased with consecutive days of sleep loss and were reduced after recovery sleep-1Sleep Deprivation    number of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredOIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 maes, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
Stanford Sleepiness RatingCognitionAttentionFatigue/Sleepiness LevelSleepiness  increased across days of sleep deprivation, and decline after a night of recovery sleep. Similar results were found for fatigue ratings from analog scales and adjective checklists completed throughout the protocol-1Sleep Deprivation    number of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredSIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 maes, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
Blood samples collected throughout the test and post sleep deprivationPhysiologyImmune SystemCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsRed Blood Cell Count  RBC counts decreased across consecutive days of the study (in a manner consistent with hemodilution. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MBC parallel the linear declines, but no systematic variation was observed for platelet count, MCH, or MCHC-1Sleep Deprivation    number of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredOIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 maes, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
ActigraphyPhysiologyMusculoskeletalPsychomotor ResponseBody Motility How much activity someone does throughout the dayno significant variation0Sleep Deprivation  Operations64h of sleep deprivationnumber of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredOIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 maes, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
temperature assessed sublinguallyPhysiologyThermoregulationCore Body TemperatureBody Temperature  no significant variation0Sleep Deprivation  Operations64h of sleep deprivationnumber of hours not sleepingDinges1994PrimaryMeasuredOIsubjects live around-the-clock for 7 consecutive days (151 h) under constant supervision in lab setting with no time cues; temp 68*F and light 169 lux held constant; first 2 days subject sleep at night, next 3 days subjects remained awake 64h, recovery sleep nights 5 and 620 subjects (7 females, 13 maes, 21-30 y) all met screening criteria of: healthy and free of active infection and symptoms within normal limits of complete blood cell counts; medication freeTerrestrial
Using video files downlinked from ISS; video from echographic imaging of arteriesPhysiologyCardiovascular SystemCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsFemoral Intima-Media Thickness (IMT); Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (IMT)  Femoral IMT was found to increase with spaceflight (10+/-3%) and remain increased late in flight in all subjects; Significantly increased by 10+/-4% after 15 days of spaceflight in all subjects and remained increased late flight and 4 days after returning to earth-1Spaceflight MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Arbeille2016PrimaryMeasuredOIIon Earth increased IMT is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease10 astronauts (7 male, 3 female; 47+/- 5 yrs old; weight 69+/-12 kg, height 172+/-8cm); during flight astronauts performed physical exercise during flight (treadmill approximately 3h/day) duration and intensity differed between participantsSpaceflight
Using video files downlinked from ISS; video from echographic imagingPhysiologyCardiovascular SystemCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsFemoral Artery Size/ Carotid Artery Size Diameter and cross-sectional area of femoral artery; Diameter and cross-sectional area of carotid artery"No changes were seen in femoral artery diameter or cross-sectional area.; "No significant effects of spaceflight were found on either carotid artery diameter or cross-sectional area."0Spaceflight MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Arbeille2016PrimaryMeasuredOII 10 astronauts (7 male, 3 female; 47+/- 5 yrs old; weight 69+/-12 kg, height 172+/-8cm); during flight astronauts performed physical exercise during flight (treadmill approximately 3h/day) duration and intensity differed between participantsSpaceflight
QuestionnairePsychology CopingPsychological Well-being  "perceived personal control over aspects of the physical environment mediated the negative effects of distraction on perceived job performance in office workplaces."1Control of Physical Environment  Environment/OperationsAbility for study subjects to modify their physical environment (lighting, temperature)Measure using questionnaire asking about levels of control, or levels of environment, or levels of distractionLee2000PrimaryMeasuredSI"This result supports Sundstrom's (1986) proposition that performance is not only affected by noise, but also one's sense of personal control, and would appear to confirm that a sense of personal control may relieve to some extent the negative effects of distraction on perceived performance"384 questionnaires from corporate offices of three manufacturing companies in Michigan, USA; 62% male (though they didn't find gender affecting the results) 35% of them were aged 35-44, mixed engineering, marketing and sales; most of them worked in an open office with high partitions (74%)Terrestrial
 PhysiologyVisualVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Gaze Latency  "There was no significant effect of target or spaceflight duration on gaze latency"0Duration of Spaceflight  Operations  Reschke2017PrimaryMeasuredOIICollected immediately after landing31 space shuttle pilots in 17 space missions tested at 3 different times before flight and 3 different times after flight starting within a few hours of return to earth.Spaceflight
 PhysiologyVisualVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Target acquisition  Mean time to visually acquire the targets immediately after landing was 7-10% (30-34ms) slower than mean preflight values, but results returned to baseline after 48 hours. This increase in gaze latency was due to a decrease in velocity and amplitude of both the eye saccade and head movement toward the target-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Reschke2017PrimaryMeasuredOIICollected immediately after landing31 space shuttle pilots in 17 space missions tested at 3 different times before flight and 3 different times after flight starting within a few hours of return to earth.Spaceflight
Gaze is the direction of the visual axis with respect to space, which is defined as the sum of eye position with respect to the head, and head position with respect to space.PhysiologyVisualVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Gaze Movement  Duration of gaze movement to the target was longer after flight than before flight.-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations Astronauts moved their head and eyes as quickly as possible from the central fixation point to a specified target located 20 deg, 30 deg, or 60 deg off center. Eye movements measured with electro-oculography (EOG), Head movement measured with triaxial rate sensor system mounted on headband.Reschke2017PrimaryMeasuredOIICollected immediately after landing31 space shuttle pilots in 17 space missions tested at 3 different times before flight and 3 different times after flight starting within a few hours of return to earth.Spaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibularVestibular System FunctionPiloted Landing  Higher variability in Shuttle touchdown sink rates as compared to the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA)-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/OperationsThe area of concern is with spatial disorientation and hand-eye coordination (for flight control) Paloski2008PrimaryMeasuredOIICollected the cumulative distribution of Shuttle landing and Shuttle Training Aircraft sink rates; desired range is 5 feet/s or belowShuttle commandersSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVisualVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Target Acquisition  Did you try to limit your head movements? "Oh yes, definitely."; When you were trying to acquire the targets only, did you notice any difficulty in spotting the targets? "oh yeah, oh yeah." Did it seem as though the target was moving or was it you? "I felt that it was me. I just couldn't get my head to stop when I wanted it to."-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryQuotedSIII 1 Shuttle commander <4 hrs after flightSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibularControl of Voluntary ResponseHead Control  "I felt that it was me. I just couldn't get my head to stop when I wanted it to."; So it was a head control problem? "Yeah, yeah in addition to the discomfort problem it caused."-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryQuotedSIII 1 Shuttle commander <4 hrs after flightSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibularVestibular System FunctionStability  When you first got out of your seat today, can you describe what that felt like? "Oh gosh, I felt so heavy, and uh, if I even got slightly off axis, you know leaned to the right or to the left like this,, I felt like everything was starting to tumble." When you came down the stairs did you feel unstable? "Oh yeah, I had somebody hold onto my arm."-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryQuotedSIII 1 Shuttle commander <4 hrs after flightSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibularSpatial OrientationOrientation  "Every crewmember interviewed by one of us on landing day (>200 crewmembers to date) has reported some degree of disorientation/perceptual illusion, often accompanied by nausea (or other symptoms of motion sickness)..."-1Spaceflight Return MicrogravityEnvironment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryAnecdotalSIII >200 crewmember interviewsSpaceflight
 PhysiologyDigestiveGastric HealthDigestion  "Every crewmember interviewed by one of us on landing day (>200 crewmembers to date) has reported some degree of disorientation/perceptual illusion, often accompanied by nausea (or other symptoms of motion sickness)..."-1Spaceflight Return  Environment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryAnecdotalSIII >200 crewmember interviewsSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular SystemVestibular System FunctionOrientation  tilt-translation illusions occur causing spatial disorientation-1Spaceflight Return  Environment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryAnecdotalSIII >200 crewmember interviewsSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationPerception of Speed,and Altitude Perception of sink rateShuttle crossed the runway threshold abnormally low 20 times (from STS-1 to STS-108); seven landings touched down abnormally long or short, and 13 had high touchdown sink rates, with 3 exceeding the 5 ft/sec structural limit. Moore et al (?) reported touchdown speeds during the first 100 shuttle landings varied widely-1Spaceflight Return  Environment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryMeasuredSIII Reviewed STS-1 to STS-108 landingsSpaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular SystemSpatial OrientationPerception of Attitude Perception of Attitude (how the shuttle nose is pointed)Shuttle crossed the runway threshold abnormally low 20 times (from STS-1 to STS-108); seven landings touched down abnormally long or short, and 13 had high touchdown sink rates, with 3 exceeding the 5 ft/sec structural limit. Moore et al (?) reported touchdown speeds during the first 100 shuttle landings varied widely-1Spaceflight Return  Environment/Operations  Paloski2008PrimaryMeasuredSIII Reviewed STS-1 to STS-108 landingsSpaceflight
 Psychology WorkloadPsychological Well-being   AWork Perception  Internal  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology CopingPsychological Well-being   APhysical Setting  Environment  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsNature of Social Interaction between co-workers   APhysical Layout  Environmentthree considerations; heath, noise and lighting Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology Abstract ReasoningCognitive Performance (certain tasks)   ANoise  Environment  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology CopingPsychological Well-being   APhysical Safety  EnvironmentConcerns about accident or injury Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology CopingPsychological Well-being   AJob Characteristics  Operations  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AQualitative Workload  Operations  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AQuantitative Workload  Operations  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AControl of Work  OperationsControl or discretion workers have over the way they perform task Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   ATask Repetitiveness  Operations  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   ARole Ambiguity  Operations  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology ThoughtfulPsychological Well-being   ATechnology Usage  Operations  Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AOrganizational Structure  OperationsIncludes number of levels of the hierarchy, the way workers are deployed, such as teams, and coordination between different parts of the organization Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AOrganizational Culture  Operations"norms of behavior and accepted ways of doing things."; includes aspects like social support, working hours, acceptability of bullying or oppressive behaviors Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology CopingPsychological Well-being   ASituations Outside of Work  InternalPersonal issues (Individual Level); (Local Community Level) Examples include local unemployment levels, transport, housing and healthcare conditions; (National Level) National economic climate (feeling of job insecurity) Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVReview paper with some definitions and clarifications of relationships to psychological well-being; may be combined effects, and how the worker perceives it all  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AControl of Work  Operations"Discretion, decision latitude, independence, autonomy, job control, self-determination, personal control, absence of close supervision, participation in decision-making, absence of utliization. Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AOpportunity for Skill Use  OperationsSkill utilization, utilization of valued abilities, application of skills and abilities, required skills. Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AExternally Generated Goals  OperationsJob demands, quantitative or qualitative workload, time demands, roles responsibility, time pressure at work, required concentration, conflicting demands. Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AVariety  OperationsVariation in job content and location, non-repetitive work, varied roles and responsibilities, skill variety, number of different job operations. Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AEnvironmental Clarity  OperationsInformation about the consequences of behaviour (e.g. availiability of feedback), information about the future (e.g. absecnce of job future ambiguity), information about required behavior (low role ambiguity) Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AAvailability of Money  OperationsIncome level, amount of pay, moderate/high standard of living, absence of poverty, material resources Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   APhysical Security  EnvironmentAbsence of danger, good working conditions, ergonimically adequate equipment, safe levels of temperature and noise, absece of continuous heavy lifting Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsPsychological Well-being   AInterpersonal Contact  OperationsQuantity of interaction (e.g. contact with others, adequate privacy), quality of interaction (e.g. good relatioship with others, social support) Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being   AValued Social PositionSpaceflight InternalCultural evaluations of status (e.g. social rank, occupational prestige), more localized social evaluations of in-comany status or job importance, personal evaluations of task significance (e.g. meaningfulness of job or self-respect from the job). Briner2000ReviewAnecdotalSIVBased on Warr's Vitamin Model where vitamins are essential for health but some can be consumed in great quantity without affecting health others cannot; includes 9 environmental "vitamins"  
 Psychology ResiliencePsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Loss of Loved OneSpaceflight InternalLoss of friend (on Ground ) to terrorist attack; Loss of family member Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Cultural MisunderstandingSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Language DifficultiesSpaceflight Operations  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology CalmPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Station DepressurizationSpaceflight Environment  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology CalmPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Mild AnxietySpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Delayed GratificationPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Delayed ReturnSpaceflight Operations  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology CalmPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Station FireSpaceflight Environment  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology CalmPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Loss of Solar Power to StationSpaceflight Environment  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology CalmPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1FearSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology ResiliencePsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Depressive SymptomsSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Crew FrictionSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology SleepBehavioral Health  Increased Stress-1Excessive Sleep ShiftingSpaceflight Operations  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology MotivationPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Work Underload/OverloadSpaceflight Operations  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Anger with Ground TeamSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Production of EmotionPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Social WithdrawalSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology CalmPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Severely Limited/Interrupted CommunicationsSpaceflight Operations  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology Interpersonal SkillsPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1"Us" vs "Them" phenomenaSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology BondingPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Marriage from OrbitSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 Psychology BondingPsychological Well-being  Increased Stress-1Birth of Child While on OrbitSpaceflight Internal  Flynn2005SecondaryAnecdotalSIVDescribes specific Issues that have occured in the past that caused stress to the crewmember  
 PhysiologySleepSleepSleep Schedule  Shifted due to operations; advanced wake time (wake-up earlier; delayed bedtime-1SpaceflightShifted Sleep Schedule Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOIIthey keep noting that much of the sleep disturbances caused by "operational demand" (i.e. they have to wake up earlier or stay up late to do work)Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepSleepSleep Period Time (SPT)  reduced to average time of 6-6.5 hrs-1SpaceflightShifted Sleep Schedule Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOIIalso references a number of other sources that show sleep is reduced during spaceflightMeasure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Parameters (SPT, sleep latency, TST, sleep efficiency, REM %)PhysiologySleepSleepSleep  no effect0MelatoninSpaceflight Medical0.3 mg taken (and verified with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations in urine) Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Subjective Sleep Quality RatingPhysiologySleepSleep QualitySleep Quality  "in general, sleep was perceived as best on return from space and worst in space"-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepSleep QualitySlow-Wave Sleep (SWS)  in-flight sleep similar to preflight sleep, but post flight SWS was reduced0Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOIIMeasured using polysomnographically recorded sleepMeasure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepSleep QualityREM sleep  similar to preflight sleep; but postflight REM was markedly increased0Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepLeadershipCompetent  less-1MelatoninSpaceflight Medical0.3 mg taken (and verified with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations in urine) Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepAttentionAttentive  less-1MelatoninSpaceflight Medical0.3 mg taken (and verified with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations in urine) Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepProduction of EmotionSad  more-1MelatoninSpaceflight Medical0.3 mg taken (and verified with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations in urine) Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepProduction of EmotionSociable  more1MelatoninSpaceflight Medical0.3 mg taken (and verified with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations in urine) Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepLogical ReasoningQuick-witted  less-1MelatoninSpaceflight Medical0.3 mg taken (and verified with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations in urine) Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepAlertness LevelAlert  Reduced by -0.5 subjective rating of mental alertness 1-9 (9=high); and VAS Alert rating reduced by -0.2-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepCalmCalm  on VAS reduced by -0.2 in flight-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepDecision MakingClear-headed  increased by 0.2 on VAS1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepProduction of EmotionContent  increased by 0.2 on VAS1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepFatigue/Sleepiness LevelEnergetic  no change0Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepInterpersonal SkillsFriendly  Increased in flight (using VAS) by 1.1 points1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepThoughtfulInterested  no change0Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepCalmRelaxed  Reduced by -0.3 in VAS-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepProduction and Application of ForceStrong  Increased by 0.6 in VAS in space1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepCalmTranquil  Increased by 0.6 in VAS in space1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)PhysiologySleepEye-hand CoordinationWell-coordinated  Increased by 0.4 rating in VAS in space1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimarySubjective, qualitative report by individualsSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepWorking MemoryRecall Memory (number)  Reduced by -0.2 points in space-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepWorking MemoryRecall Memory (time)  increased by 0.5 seconds in space1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepAlertness LevelPsychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) Measures Reaction Time and Sustained Attentionincreased number of lapses by 0.2, and increased median Reaction Time (RT), ms by 0.5 in flight (negative impact on the capability)-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepWorking MemoryCognitive Throughput Using 4-min two-digit addition task (ADD) as a measure of cognitive throughput (Calculation Performance)Performance reflects the number of correct additions completed; seemed to improve in space and postflight (not a clear descriptor for the metric though)1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Performance, effort, and evaluation rating scale (PEERS)PhysiologySleepPersistenceEffort (Do Better) higher score indicates he/she thought could have done betterIncreased feeling of "Could have done better" by 0.2-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Performance, effort, and evaluation rating scale (PEERS)PhysiologySleepWorkloadEffort How much effort he/she felt it took; higher scores indicate extreme effortIncreased subjective effort by 0.3-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Performance, effort, and evaluation rating scale (PEERS)PhysiologySleepPersistencePerformance higher score indicates extremely poor performanceIncreased score by 0.4, therefore spaceflight negatively impacts performance-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (1-9)PhysiologySleepFatigue/Sleepiness LevelSleepiness higher scores indicate sleepinessincrease by .6-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepCore Body TemperatureBody Temperature  "During early flight and in particular during late flight, temperature appeared to rise more gradually during the waking episode; during late flight, temperature in the wake episode remained comparable, but temperature in the sleep episode was somewhat higher than during preflight and early in flight; significant reduction in the amplitude of the body temperature from L-60 day to early flight and early flight to late flight"-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
Urinary cortisol excretion (average preflight 0.47+/-0.08(SE))PhysiologySleepAlertness LevelCortisol  No statistical significance could be established0Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryMeasuredOII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologySleepSleep QualitySleep Quality  Respiratory disturbances are reduced during spaceflight and can be excluded as a cause of reduced sleep-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Dijk2001PrimaryRefers to another paperSII Measure sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance of 5 astronauts before, during and after 16-day (STS-90) or 10-day (STS-95) space missions; in space scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24h (STS-90 or STS-95); light-dark cycles were highly variable on flight deck; daytime illuminances in other compartments were very low (5.0-74.9 lx) 
 PhysiologyCardiovascularCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsCirculatory Disease (Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) [ICD-10 120-125], hypertensive disease [ICD-10 110-115], cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) [ICD-10 160-169], disease of the veins, arteries, and arterioles [ICD-10 180-189]. (most deaths due to IHD)Suggest no conclusive evidence can be drawn and Delp is wrong about 5x risk increase in circulatory disease due to radiation accumulation of less than 0.6 Sv improbable0SpaceflightRadiation Exposure Environment/Operations  Cucinotta2016SecondaryHas table of data for radiation exposure of astronautsOIVThis article was more focused on showing how the Delp2016 article was wrong because of specific methods they used to make the analysis  
Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT): 5 min test -press button as quickly as possible when target appeared (average reaction time)CognitionCognitive TasksAttentionSustained Attention VigilanceShowed degraded vigilance in response to sleep deprivation-1Sleep Deprivation  Operations  Grugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOI 48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
Letter-number sequencing (oral presentation of series of letters and numbers and participant has to reorder numbers first then letters) 5 min test (total number of correct sequences)CognitionCognitive TasksWorking MemoryWorking Memory  No change found0Sleep Deprivation  Operations  Grugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOI 48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
Letter Sets Test (form and test hypothesis that fit a set of data) 15 items contain 5 sets of 4 letters, participants determine rule that related 4 of five sets together and eliminate se that did not fit. 7 min test (# of correct responses)CognitionExecutive Function TasksAbstract ReasoningInductive Reasoning  No change found; if exclude outliers than LS net score improved with Sleep deprivation0Sleep Deprivation  Operations  Grugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOI 48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
Logical Reasoning Test (nonsense Syllogism) 4 min test (total number of correct responses, incomplete responses counted as incorrect)CognitionExecutive Function TasksLogical ReasoningDeductive Reasoning Logical Reasoning from premise to conclusionNo change found0Sleep Deprivation  Operations  Grugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOI 48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
Maze Tracing Test (from Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Test (Ekstrom 1976); 3 min to trace path through a series of mazes as quickly as possible (not penalized for lifting pencil retracing path or accidently crossing lines at the sides of the path being taken) (time)CognitionExecutive Function TasksDecision MakingPlanning  No change found (mixed change if analyze with paired t-test and outliers)0Sleep Deprivation  Operations  Grugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOIMay be better to use maze tracing errors as a better measure of planning strategy than total number of mazes completed in 3 minutes48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
Iowa Gambling Task; presented with four decks of cards, choose one card some amount of money was won or lost; 2 decks characterized by smaller wins and losses, 2 decks higher wins and losses; 20 min test; measure total number of choices from risky decksCognitionExecutive Function TasksDecision MakingDecision Making  No change (some trend using nonparametric test approach, but still not statistically significant)0Sleep Deprivation  Operations  Grugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOI 48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
WOMBAT-FC; test consists of a primary air traffic control task and 3 secondary tasks; must perceive info, allocate priorities based on new information, discover rules through induction and deduction, recognize emerging opportunities, ignore distractions, make decisions, and cope with boredom over a 60-minute test. Four underlying tasks: target tracking, pattern recognition, spatial orientation, and short-term memory. Measure points earned during the simultaneous 4 tasksCognitionExecutive Function Tasks (under complex task performance)Situational AwarenessSituation Awareness (SA) Performance on complex task requiring SA; "the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future." (Endsley, 1995a p. 36)No degradation0Sleep Deprivation  Operations Measured by Polysomnographic (PSG) to identify sleep and wakefulness; include electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), & electrocardiogram (EKG) (used Compumedics Siesta SystemGrugle2005PrimaryMeasuredOI 48 subjects, ages 18-39 yrs; sleep deprivation of 29 hrs; used paired t-tests 
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsBody Size Physical DimensionsAge affects anthropometry in individuals through changes in stature, weight, and mass distribution.AAging  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsBody Size Physical DimensionsBody size and strength of males and females follow a bivariate normal distribution; female measurements are typically smaller than male measurements; female weight is typically less than male weight; "The average female hip breadth, ..., exceeds the average male hip breadth." (Gordon et al. 1988)AGender  InternalFemale or Male NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Posture Physical DimensionsImpact on postureAClothing  Environment/OperationsFlight suit, minimal clothing NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsBody Size Physical DimensionsIf wearing pressurized suit, increases the volume occupied by the crewmember (bigger is considered a negative impact here because of limited volume in spacecraft)-1Pressurization  Environment/Operations Unrealistic to make a database for just pressurized anthropometry; instead use a conversion factor to apply for minimally clothed crewmemberNASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Physical DimensionsDepending on what posture the crewmember is in it can affect measurements of the bodyAPosture  Environment/OperationsStanding, sitting, recumbent, upright, neutral body NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsBody Size Physical DimensionsInsufficient data to quantify the effects to dimensionsNDHypergravity  Environment(launch, re-entry) NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsStanding Height Standing heightIncreased by approximately 3%; spinal elongation and straightening of spinal curvature (Brown, 1975; Brown, 1977; Thorton, Hoffler, & Rummel, 1977; Thorton & Moore, 1987; Webb Associates, 1978) +3% stature and +6% sitting heightASpaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasuredOIV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsNeutral Body Posture  The relaxed body assumes a characteristic neutral body posture including: foot angle tilted approx 111 deg to a line through the torso; foot and leg placement should be under work surfaces; height is between sitting and standing height; arm and shoulder elevated; head angled forward and down changes line of sight to displays; change in total body envelopeASpaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasuredOIV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsBody Tissue Compression  Relief of pressure on body surfaces, seated height increases, and knee height dimensions increase-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsLimb Volume  limb volume and circumferential measures decrease (0-6% change)-1SpaceflightCephalic Fluid Shift Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasuredOIV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsUpper Torso Circumference  Increases and face gets puffy (0-6% change)-1SpaceflightCephalic Fluid Shift Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasuredOIV   
Use published adult anthropometry data (1988 Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel (ANSUR); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; Ogden et al, 2004); Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsBody Mass  loss of 0-8%-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations muscle atrophy, body fluid loss, bone lossNASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasuredOIV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach Envelope"indications are that joint motion capability is not drastically affected in 0g"0Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach Envelopeup to 4g, possible reach motion with arm, up to 5g (up to 9g if arm is counterbalanced)=forearm, up to 8g=hand, up to 10 g= finger-1Hypergravity  EnvironmentLaunch, re-entry NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeBody physique can affect joint movement, but individual must be considered on individual basis.-1Larger Body Size  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeJoint mobility can decrease as they age-1Aging  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeFemales have a slightly broader range of motion of joint movementAGender  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeIncreases mobility, however weight-training exercises may increase muscle bulk and restrict mobility-1Weight Lifting  Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeRestrict mobility-1Constraining Posture  Environment/OperationsAwkward and constrained body postures or loads NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeReduces normal range of motion-1Fatigue and Injury or Pain  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeMovement range of a single joint is often drastically reduced by movement of an adjacent join (not additive range)-1Multi-Joint Interaction  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeCan cause restriction to mobility, especially flight suits-1Clothing  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeImpedes mobility; see Reach Envelope Motion with ACES and D-Suit reduced vertical up-and-down, and side reach from 3-12% and with pressure reduction in reach varies from 2-45%; worst decrement in vertical downward reach with D-Suit-1Pressurization  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject); Photographs, videos, motion capture tools (e.g. Vicon Motion Analysis System), or placing markers/rulersPhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeRange of motion is affected by specific posture of individualAPosture  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Motion capture, Lumbar Dynamometer for mobility of back; radiographic examination series of X-rays; inclinometer (measures deviation from vertical, used for trunk mobility), photographs, goniometer (device with 2 straight edges that can rotate relative to a protractor, aligned with landmarks on subject)PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsRange of Motion Ranges of joint movement, applicable to shirtsleeve or unpressurized flight suit environments/ Reach EnvelopeHinders mobility, but needed for stabilization and to help exert thrust or push; handholds afford wide range of functional reach, but body control and stability is difficult and poor; waist affords good body control and stabilization but limits motion and reach distances; foot restraint good in reach performance stability and control, but not much force can be exerted by ankle rotator muscles-1Restraint  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
 PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsCenter of Mass of whole bodyShift center of mass upwardASpaceflightCephalic Fluid Shift Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
 PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsMoment of Inertia of whole body along X, Y, Z axesShift center of mass upwardASpaceflightCephalic Fluid Shift Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)strength drops off significantly with the extended duration of an activity-1Long Activity Duration  OperationsInteractions between human and environment NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)low correlation between strength and size, should not use anthropometry in determining strength and endurance0Anthropometry  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)strength peaks around 20-25 with decrease over time; leg strength tends to decrease more rapidly than arm strength (Konz, 1983) large intersubject variability-1Aging  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)General average female strength is 60-70% that of males, but comparing same size male and female closer to 80-90% of males0Gender  Internal  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasured IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)Wearing a pressurized suit affects ability to exert maximum effort; joint torque production in pressurized suit reduce joint torque production by 39% (Gonzalez et al, 2002)-1Clothing  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasured IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)amount of force person is capable of exerting depends on postureAPosture  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryProduction and Application of ForceMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)Reduction due to deconditioning of muscles; but some activities will require less strength (e.g.moving a box), and others require full strength-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)increased effort to maintaining body segments in required position causing simple tasks to be more difficult-1HypergravityMicrogravity EnvironmentLaunch, re-entry NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)absence of counter-reactive forces so need proper restraints to perform work or create force-1Lack of Counter-Reactive Forces  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)With foot restraints in 0g, subjects strength still reduced by 17%; some strength improvements can be achieved in 0g due to achieving more efficient body position in 0g-1Restraints (Foot)Microgravity Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasured IV   
Isometric -constant muscle length; isovelocity/isokinetic -constant angular velocity; isotonic - constant muscle tension; use dynamometer can be as simple as a mechanical device for measuring grip; other measures are speed of contraction, # of joints involved in movement, orientation of subject wrt gravityPhysiologyAnthropometryMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength "person's ability to generate force"; "the magnitude of variable force that a [muscle group] exerts on the skeletal system at the attachment site of interest" (Kulig, Andrews, & Hay, 1984)Reduced muscle strength and aerobic power of load-bearing muscles; greater loss of leg muscle strength than arm muscle strength because locomotion performed with upper body-1Spaceflight  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Measured by maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max (L/min)) maximal aerobic power, and lactate threshold.PhysiologyCardiovascularHeart Rate VariabilityAerobic Fitness "overall efficiency of the cardiovascular system in delivering oxygen to muscles and the efficiency at which the muscle can use the oxygen to maintain prolonged submaximal work." depends on blood volume pumped from heart, gas exchange between vessels and muscles, and metabolic efficiency of the muscleDecreased left ventricular mass (Perhonen et al, 2001); diastolic dysfunction (Dorfman et al, 2008), vascular dysregulation (Zhang, 2001), reduced exercise capacity (Levine et al, 1996; Moore et al., 2001; Trappe et al., 2006), reduced thermoregulatory responses (Fortney et al., 1998; Lee, et al., 2002), and orthostatic intolerance (on return to 1g) (Buckey et al, 1996; Fritsch-Yelle et al. 1996; Meck et al., 2004; Waters et al., 2002)-1Spaceflight  EnvironmentCauses hydrostatic gradient, a cephalad fluid shift and lower physical activity levels reduces cardiac work NASA HIDH, 2014 pg. 104SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
Measure VO2 maxPhysiologyCardiovascularVO2 MaxAerobic Capacity VO2 max"Reduced dramatically (~20%) in first few weeks of spaceflight and slowly returns to near pre-flight levels throughout the mission, but at landing still 10-15% reduction from pre-flight."-1Spaceflight  EnvironmentPossibly due to a combination of factors of rapid fluid shift and minimal usage of exercise countermeasure in first week NASA HIDH, 2014 pg. 105SecondaryMeasuredOIV   
 PhysiologyCardiovascularVO2 MaxAerobic Capacity   AEVA ActivitySpaceflight Operations20% reduction in aerobic fitness cause significant implications for ability to perform EVA NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryMeasured IV   
 PhysiologyCardiovascularLocomotionMetabolic Workload  "Apollo (1/6g)= 234 kcal/h, 0.80 L/min;
Apollo (0g)=151 kcal/h, 0.51 L/min;
Skylab = 238 kcal/h, 0.81L/min;
Shuttle 205-220 kcal/h, 0.76 L/min"AEVA ActivitySpaceflight Operations20% reduction in aerobic fitness cause significant implications for ability to perform EVA NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyCardiovascularHeart Rate VariabilityCardiovascular Health  Needed to maintain cardiovascular health1Exercise  OperationsDifferent types: aerobic, resistance, or interval trainingAmerican College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends a min of 30-60 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (70-85% of max heart rate) 5x per week and 2-3 times resistance training for 1g cardio healthNASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PsychologyMental HealthProduction of EmotionDepression  "some evidence that moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise has positive effects on mental health, particularly depression."1Exercise  OperationsDifferent types: aerobic, resistance, or interval training NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
Muscles activated in concentric (shortens while producing force), eccentric (lengthens while producing force), or isometric (creates tension but does not change length) actionsPhysiologyMuscular SystemAnthropometricsMuscle Mass Force-producing tissue in the bodyloss of muscle mass-1SpaceflightMechanical Unloading Environment/Operations Caused by down-regulation of anabolic pathways that reduce muscle protein synthesis and decrease muscle fiber cross-sectional areaNASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
Muscles activated in concentric (shortens while producing force), eccentric (lengthens while producing force), or isometric (creates tension but does not change length) actionsPhysiologyMuscular SystemAnthropometricsMuscle Mass Force-producing tissue in the bodyloss of muscle strength-1SpaceflightMechanical Unloading Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleAnthropometricsMuscle Mass Force-producing tissue in the bodyloss of muscle mass and muscle strength-1Prolonged Inactivity  Operations      IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength Force-producing tissue in the bodyloss of muscle mass and muscle strength-1Prolonged Inactivity  Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyMuscular SystemAnthropometricsMuscle Mass Whole-Body Lean Muscle MassReduced (from pre-flight levels) (Lee et al, 2004)-1Long-duration Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleAnthropometricsMuscle Mass Leg Lean Muscle MassReduced (from pre-flight levels) (Lee et al, 2004)-1Long-duration Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleProduction and Application of ForceKnee Extension Peak Torque  Reduced (from pre-flight levels) (Lee et al, 2004)-1Long-duration Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleProduction and Application of ForceKnee Flexion Peak Torque  Reduced (from pre-flight levels) (Lee et al, 2004)-1Long-duration Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength Strength in locomotor and postural musculature of trunk and lower extremitiesDeclines 8-17%-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength  Increase or maintain1Resistance Exercise  Operationshigh intensity resistance exercise with 1:1 (or greater) ratio of eccentric:concentric loading is optimal to increase or maintain strengthMeasured by loading provided via resistance (machine weight in 0g adds no loading); also when load is applied (should be during concentric load during eccentric phase of exercise)NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleAnthropometricsMuscle Size  If do these exercises, improves in 1G1Resistance Exercise  OperationsExercise involve large amounts of muscle mass, moderate (60-80% of 1 rep max) intensity to heavy (>80% 1 rep max) loads; multiple sets per exercise; 2-3 min rest between sets; 2-3 times/week NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle Strength  If do these exercises, improves in 1G1Resistance Exercise  OperationsExercise involves large amounts of muscle mass; very heavy exercise loads (near max); multiple sets per exercise (3-5 sets) and 1-6 reps per set; 3 minutes rest between set NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle Power  If do these exercises, improves in 1G1Resistance Exercise  OperationsExercises that involve large amounts of muscle mass that can be performed rapidly; moderate load, perform as fast as possible; multiple sets per exercise (3-5 sets) 1-6 reps; rest 3 min between sets NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle Endurance  If do these exercises, improves in 1G1Resistance Exercise  OperationsExercise involves large amounts of muscle mass; light (<50% 1RM) to moderate loads; 2 sets with 15-25 reps per set; rest 2-3 min between sets NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyBoneBone StrengthBone Strength  Helps maintain bone health1Resistance Exercise  OperationsExercise that has frequent and diverse load application with high strain rate (resistance training, treadmill running); also bone responds best to load applied in a cyclic manner, create a high rate of change of force, and when boan loading exercise bouts are best separated over a period of time (Turner, 1998) NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyBoneBone StrengthBone Mineral Density  Decrements at a rate of 1.0-1.5% per month (Shackelford, 2004); though different among body locations and particularly high in the hip; change of bone micro-architecture, and limited recovery-1Long-duration Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVisual SystemVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Estimate 2D Motion Capable of estimating 2D static angular orientation of objects with precision better than 1 deg depending on stimulus size and contrast (Howard & Templeton, 1966, Philips & Wilson, 1984)Performance of estimating 2D static angular orientation of objects depends on stimulus size and contrast (Howard & Templeton, 1966; Philips & Wilson, 1984)-1Reduced Stimulus Size Contrast  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVestibular SystemVestibular System FunctionTilt Perception tilt processing system primarily output of the otolithsPeak in motion sickness susceptibility occurs during linear accelerations around 0.1 to 0.3 Hz due to frequency segregation being inadequate to distinguish between tilt and translation (Wood, 2002)-1Linear Acceleration  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVisual SystemVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Manual Control Compute precise estimates of the 2D motion of objects on display with precision of speed estimates as good as 5% (McKee et al, 1986) and direction estimates better than 1 deg (Pantle & Sekuler, 1969)Below 16% contrast, for every 2-fold reduction in luminance contrast, there is a 35-ms increase in reaction time and 8% increase in root mean square error in manual control task (li et al, 2005)-1Reduced Luminance Contrast  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVisual SystemVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Estimate 2D Motion  Affects accuracy and precision of motor performance in both gaze and manual control tasks-1Reduced Stimulus Size  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVisual SystemVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Estimate 2D Motion  Affects accuracy and precision of motor performance in both gaze and manual control tasksADirection  Environment  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVisual SystemVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Estimate 2D Motion  Affects accuracy and precision of motor performance in both gaze and manual control tasksATraining  Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014Secondary  IV   
 PhysiologyVisual SystemVisual Control (Scanning and Visual Tracking)Estimate 3D Direction visual system can compute precise estimates of one's 3D direction of self-translation (heading) from the visually expanding "optic flow" with an accuracy and precision close to 1 deg (Warren et al, 1988)Accuracy and precision of visual heading estimation during passive perception of or active control of combined translation and rotation is 3-4x worse and is sensitive to the field of view and to amount of depth variation across visible points (Stone & Perrone, 1997; Li et al., 2007; Peng et al., 2008)-1Combined Translation and Rotation  Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV   
 Physiology Spatial OrientationSpatial Navigation  incidents on Mir when astronauts on occasion lost situational awareness-1Spatial DisorientationSpaceflight Environment/Operations  NASA HIDH, 2014SecondaryAnecdotal IV Mir cosmonauts anecdotal reportingSpaceflight
Lower limb girth measurementsPhysiologySkeletal MuscleAnthropometricsMuscle Mass  "lower limb girth measurements were completed (data not published) that provided the first evidence for loss of muscle mass in the legs."-1Spaceflight  Environment  NASA, 2015SecondaryAnecdotalOIII Apollo astronautsSpaceflight
Muscle atrophy (atrophic response)PhysiologySkeletal MuscleMuscle StrengthMuscle strength  "Unloading of skeletal muscle, both on Earth and during spaceflight, results in remodeling of muscle (atrophic response) as an adaptation to the reduced loads placed upon it. As a result, decrements occur in skeletal muscle strength, fatigue resistance, motor performance, and connective tissue integrity."-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA, 2015SecondaryAnecdotalOIII Astronauts and Earth test subjectsSpaceflight and Analog
Reduction in red blood cell massPhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceSkeletal muscle function  "In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that have an impact on skeletal muscle function [...] Additional observations included the presence of post-flight orthostatic intolerance that was still present for up to 50 hours after landing in some crewmembers, a decrease in red cell mass of 5-20% from preflight levels, and radiographic indications of bone demineralization in the calcaneus."-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA, 2015SecondaryAnecdotalOIII Astronauts and Earth test subjectsSpaceflight and Analog
Reduced work capacity and O2 consumption, reduced exercise tolerancePhysiologyCardiovascular SystemVO2 MaxAerobic capacity  "reduced work capacity and oxygen consumption of significant degree was noted in 67% (18 of 27) of the Apollo crewmembers tested on recovery. This decrement was transient, and 85% of those tested (23 of 27) returned to preflight baseline levels within 24- 36 hours. A significant decrement in cardiac stroke volume was associated with diminished exercise tolerance."-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA, 2015SecondaryAnecdotalOIII Apollo astronautsSpaceflight
Reduced volume in lower limbs; decreased strengthPhysiologyMusculo-Skeletal SystemAnthropometricsMuscle mass  "Fluid shifts contributed the largest changes to lower limb volumes, but loss of leg tissue mass is clearly evident, particularly in the Commander."-1SpaceflightFluid Shift Environment/Operations  NASA, 2015SecondaryMeasuredOIII Crewmembers from Skylab 2 and 3Spaceflight
Reduced volume in lower limbs; decreased strengthPhysiologyMusculo-Skeletal SystemAnthropometricsMuscle Strength  "By the time day 5 of the muscle testing was completed, some recovery in function had likely occurred; however, a marked decrement still remained. The decrement in leg extensor strength was nearly 25%; the arms suffered less but also exhibited marked losses."-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  NASA, 2015SecondaryMeasuredOIII Crewmembers from Skylab 2 and 3Spaceflight
Using stereoscopic cameras and tape measuresPhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsHead and Trunk Volume  "The mean losses of volume of 1.2 liters in the head and trunk, and 1.3 liters in the legs, are significantly different from zero (P<0.005). The mean preflight volume of the head and trunk is 45.8 liters, and that of the legs 18.9 liters, so that the postflight change in volume is proportionately much greater in the legs."-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Johnston1974PrimaryMeasuredOII Crewmembers from Skylab 4 (84 days of inflight)Spaceflight
Using stereoscopic cameras and tape measuresPhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsLeg Volume  "The mean losses of volume of 1.2 liters in the head and trunk, and 1.3 liters in the legs, are significantly different from zero (P<0.005). The mean preflight volume of the head and trunk is 45.8 liters, and that of the legs 18.9 liters, so that the postflight change in volume is proportionately much greater in the legs."-1Spaceflight  Environment/Operations  Johnston1974PrimaryMeasuredOII Crewmembers from Skylab 4 (84 days of inflight)Spaceflight
Using stereoscopic cameras and tape measuresPhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsLeg Volume  "On the basis of these measurements, it seems likely that in-flight exercise, which was increased on successive flights, may have acted in opposition to the postflight loss of leg volume. How much of this opposition is mediated by the prevention of muscular atrophy, and how much by an • effect on the cardiovascular system, and hence on body fluids, it is not possible to say."1ExerciseSpaceflight Environment/Operations  Johnston1974PrimaryMeasuredSII Crewmembers from Skylab 4 (84 days of inflight)Spaceflight
24-hour Holter monitor recordings before flight, during flight, and after flight. The second descriptive study (DSO 602) employed Holter monitors as well as automatic blood pressure devices to monitor heart rate, cardiac arrhythmias, and arterial pressure for 24-hour periods before, during, and after flightPhysiologyCardiovascular SystemHeart RateMetabolic Workload   0SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment/Operations  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSII The subjects were 12 astronauts who flew missions lasting from 4 to 14 days.Spaceflight
24-hour Holter monitor recordings before flight, during flight, and after flight. The second descriptive study (DSO 602) employed Holter monitors as well as automatic blood pressure devices to monitor heart rate, cardiac arrhythmias, and arterial pressure for 24-hour periods before, during, and after flightPhysiologyCardiovascular SystemHeart RateMetabolic Workload "
""changes in cardiac function occurred after short duration (4 to 5 day) spaceflights. These changes included decreased left ventricular end diastolic volume and decreased stroke volume indices, with compensatory increased heart rate and increased maintenance of cardiac output."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment/Operations  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSII The subjects were 12 astronauts who flew missions lasting from 4 to 14 days.Spaceflight
Echocardiography provides a useful noninvasive technique for evaluation of cardiovascular physiology after spaceflight.PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceMetabolic Workload  altered total peripheral vascular resistance occurred, with an apparent reduction in the ability to augment peripheral vascular tone on assumption of upright posture. Changes in cardiovascular measurements resolved within 7 days of landing.-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSIV The subjects were 12 astronauts who flew missions lasting from 4 to 14 days.Spaceflight
24-hour Holter monitor recordings before flight, during flight, and after flight. The second descriptive study (DSO 602) employed Holter monitors as well as automatic blood pressure devices to monitor heart rate, cardiac arrhythmias, and arterial pressure for 24-hour periods before, during, and after flightPhysiologyCardiovascular SystemHeart RateMetabolic Workload/Self-egress  entry, landing, and seat egress after Shuttle flights were associated with drops in systolic pressure and increases in heart rate. These results describe a cardiovascular system under significant stress during nominal entry, landing, and seat egress, and indicate that the cardiovascular system was performing at or near its maximum capacity in a significant fraction (20%) of the study population. While these crew members were never clinically hypotensive, their swings in arterial pressure and heart rate indicate that they were unable to buffer arterial pressure changes as well as before flight. It is questionable whether sufficient reserve capacity remained to permit unaided emergency egress by these individuals.-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSII The subjects were 12 astronauts who flew missions lasting from 4 to 14 days.Spaceflight
tested subjects before and after 4 to 5 day spaceflight missions [7, 16]. Subjects were studied 10 and 5 days before launch, on landing day, and up to 10 days after landing. The protocol consisted of a 20-minute supine rest period, followed by carotid baroreceptor stimulation. A stepping motor-driven bellows was connected to a neck chamber to deliver stepped pulses of pressure and suction to the neck.PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceMetabolic Workload Orthostatic Hypertension (blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from supine/prone and sitting positions.)results from the first two studies show that short duration spaceflight leads to significant reductions in vagal control of heart rate that may contribute to orthostatic intolerance. The results from long duration flights (10 days or longer) provide further evidence of function- ally relevant postflight disruption of autonomic regulation of arterial pressure and heart rate.-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSII 16 astronaut subjectsSpaceflight
third mechanistic study (DSO 613) measured catecholamine levels and cardiovascular responses to stand- ing in 24 astronauts before and after spaceflight [17]. Studies were performed 10 days before launch, on landing day, and 3 days after landing. Arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output were measured. Blood samples, drawn at the end of a 20-minute supine rest period and after 5 minutes of standing, were tested for catecholamines and plasma renin activity.PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceMetabolic Workload relationship between plasma catecholamine levels and total peripheral resistance changes upon standing"results from the third study showed an apparent uncoupling between sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral resistance."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSII 16 astronaut subjects participated in this activity, using the same schedule as the previous study. Missions lasting 8 to 14 daysSpaceflight
define differences in physiological responses of astronauts who did or did not become presyncopal on landing day. 20-minute supine rest period, followed by a blood draw for analyses of plasma catecholamine and plasma renin activity. (1) echocardiographic measurements to obtain aortic cross sectional area, (2) continuous wave Doppler for aortic flow, and (3) beat-to-beat arterial pressure and ECG.PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceResistance to orthostatic intolerance  "suggest that spaceflight caused changes in central modulation of baroreflex function which were manifested as a hypoadrenergic response to standing. Furthermore, drastically differing susceptibilities to postflight orthostatic intolerance were observed in the astronaut population [...] also suggests that there was a subset of the astronaut population that had orthostatic responses well within normal ranges before flight, but was nevertheless predisposed to experience presyncope during upright posture after spaceflight."-1SpaceflightEgress upon return to gravitational planet. Environment  Charles1999SecondaryMeasuredSIIprotocol was performed 30 and 10 days before launch, on landing day, and 3 and 10 days after landing. Data were analyzed to document differences between presyncopal and non-presyncopal astronauts.40 astronauts before and after Shuttle missions of up to 16 days.Spaceflight
Sensory conflicts between vestibular signals and other sensory organs (visual, tactile, etc.); conflict within vestibular system (canals and otoliths).PhysiologyVestibular systemVestibular System FunctionCommunication between senses  "One particularly important neurophysiological effect in space is the disruption of congruence between vestibular signals and other (e.g., visual, tactile) receptors, as well as between the vestibular otolith and semicircular receptors, which is mainly caused by the altered signals from the gravity-sensitive otoliths. This lack of congruence leads to sensory conflicts that seem to be the basic mechanism underlying visual illusions of self and surround motions induced by head movements, disturbances of spatial orientation, and space motion sickness."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV N/ASpaceflight
Difficulty in maintaining visual fixation of targets while moving the head or disturbances of pursuit eye movements.PhysiologyVestibular systemBody Positioning and BalanceProprioception  "In addition, the altered vestibular signals lead to disturbances of head-eye movement coordination which, among others, are reflected in disturbances of the vestibulo-ocular reflexes, difficulties with the egocentric location of objects, and disturbances of gaze control; e.g., difficulties in maintaining visual fixation of targets while moving the head or disturbances of pursuit eye movements."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV N/ASpaceflight
 CognitionVestibular systemSpatial OrientationMental processing  "Even though information from the vestibular system and other graviceptors sem to affect different parts of the visual cortex, higher processes of visual perception and cognition seem to remain more or less unimpaired in microgravity, or -- at least -- do not exhibit overt performance decrements. This holds, for example, for the recognition of disoriented objects, the perception of spatial relations between two external objects, or processes of mental rotation."0SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular systemControl of Voluntary ResponseProprioception  "These effects (e.g., mechanical, visual, and proprioceptive effects) have repeatedly been shown to affect the efficiency of visuo-motor transformations; i.e., the transformation of visual input into appropriate motor responses."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular systemSensory-Motor SpeedSpatial Navigation  "Generally, early in spaceflight, microgravity can be assumed to induce a state of sensory-motor discordance which is characterized by a disruption of the usual relationships among efferent and afferent signals during the execution of movements. This discordance can be expected to require complex adaptive processes under microgravity -- for example reweighting of afferent information and a relearning of perceptual-motor skills that have been established on the ground."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologyMusculo-Skeletal SystemControl of Voluntary ResponseProprioception  "In particular, either a loss of precision (7), or a slowing of movement times and changed kinematics during execution of these movements were found compared with 1G conditions (4), and both of these effects have been attributed to microgravity-induced alterations of proprioceptive functions and motor programming."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologyMusculo-Skeletal SystemDiscrimination of Limb Movement and LocationProprioception  "In addition, microgravity-induced changes of proprioceptive functions are also suggested by experimental results which point to a declined awareness of one's own limb position during simulated hypogravity conditions (6)."-1Microgravity  Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryMeasuredSIV  Analog
WorkloadPhysiologyCognitionAttentionGeneral psych impacts  "A second possible source of mental performance decrements in space is unspecific stress effects related to the burden of adapting physiologically to microgravity or to combined effects of other spaceflight-related stressors (e.g., confinement, elevated CO2 concentration in the ambient air, workload) which may impair the attentional state of (15) astronauts."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryAnecdotalSIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCognition, biochemical, phsychophysiologicalRetrieval and ProcessingMental processing  "various cognitive, biochemical and psychophysiological functions are assumed to be influenced differentially, depending on the quality of eliciting stressors. This assumption is suggested by both multidimensional neurophysiological models of cortical activation (31, 34) as well as results from laboratory research which suggest that the effects of different external or internal stressors on mental performance are not uniform, but may be described by specific profiles of performance deficits across different indicator variables."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryAnecdotalSIV  Analog
quality of sleepPhysiologyCircadian SystemSleep QualitySleep Time  "Reduced sleep times and even impairments of sleep quality during the first days (up to 2 or 3 wk) in space have been repeatedly reported from subjective debriefings with crewmembers, as well as systematic sleep research during spaceflight, and are assumed to reflect, at least partially, disturbances of the circadian system."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2000SecondaryAnecdotalSIV AstronautsSpaceflight
quality of sleepPhysiologyCircadian SystemSleepSleep Quality  "Reduced sleep times and even impairments of sleep quality during the first days (up to 2 or 3 wk) in space have been repeatedly reported from subjective debriefings with crewmembers, as well as systematic sleep research during spaceflight, and are assumed to reflect, at least partially, disturbances of the circadian system."-1SpaceflightMicrogravity Environment  Manzey2001Secondary SIV AstronautsSpaceflight
sleep deprivationPhysiology SleepSleep Quality  "These effects [sleep deprivation] may be further amplified by side effects of physiological adaptation to microgravity (e.g., space motion sickness), confinement, and the atmospheric conditions in the space habitat (e.g., reduced quality of breathing air)."-1SpaceflightMicrogravityConfinementEnvironment  Manzey2002Secondary SIV AstronautsSpaceflight
orthostatic intolerancePhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "In the present study, the principal postflight change in the hemodynamic response to orthostatic stress was a greater postural decrease in stroke volume, presumably related to reduced cardiac filling."-1SpaceflightReturn to >0g Environment  Buckey1996PrimaryMOII 14 crew members, 3 women, 11 men; mean age 40yr, height 177m, mean weight 77.3 kg, mean maximal O2 uptake 41.2 ml*min^-1 kg^-1Spaceflight
orthostatic intolerancePhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "Supine stroke volume was significantly reduced postflight, a change consistent with a reduced blood volume."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Buckey1996PrimaryMOII 14 crew members, 3 women, 11 men; mean age 40yr, height 177m, mean weight 77.3 kg, mean maximal O2 uptake 41.2 ml*min^-1 kg^-1Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAnthropometricsHeart mass  "spaceflight of 10-14 days duration also produces a decrease in cardiac mass of 12%."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Buckey1996SecondaryAOII 14 crew members, 3 women, 11 men; mean age 40yr, height 177m, mean weight 77.3 kg, mean maximal O2 uptake 41.2 ml*min^-1 kg^-1Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "In summary, the reduction in stroke volume is consistent with hypovolemia, but other mechanisms, including inadequate vasoconstriction, increased abdominal pooling, and changes in ventricular pressure-volume relationships, may contribute to the development of postflight orthostatic intolerance."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Buckey1996PrimaryMOII 14 crew members, 3 women, 11 men; mean age 40yr, height 177m, mean weight 77.3 kg, mean maximal O2 uptake 41.2 ml*min^-1 kg^-1Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsMetabolic workload  "We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity of cardiac muscle under different loading conditions."-1Bed Rest  Environment  Perhonen2001PrimaryMSIV We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n 5) and 12 (n 3) wk of horizontal bed rest.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAnthropometricsHeart mass  "During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8 ± 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 ± 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 ± 12.2 vs. 153.4 ± 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 ± 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load."-1Bed Rest  Environment  Perhonen2001PrimaryMOII We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n 5) and 12 (n 3) wk of horizontal bed rest.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAnthropometricsHeart size decrease  "In conclusion, a significant reduction in LV mass and LV and LA volumes, as well as in Doppler indexes of early diastolic filling, was observed even after only 5 days of HDBR. All these changes were fully reversed shortly after discontinuation of HDBR. SAC as a CM resulted ineffective in preventing these changes, both when applied continuously or intermittently."-1Bed rest  Operational  Caiani2014PrimaryMOI As part of the European Space Agency (ESA) HDBR strategy, an only male population composed by 12 healthy volunteers aged 33 7 (range, 21 to 41 yr; body mass index, 23.7 2.1 kg/m2; maximal oxygen uptake, 39 6 ml·kg 1·min 1) were recruited after multiple screening and psychological tests.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsMetabolic workload  "In summary, this study shows that LV (and possibly RV) atrophy occurs during prolonged supine bed rest deconditioning and may also occur after spaceflight. We suggest that this response is an appropriate "physiological" adaptation to reduced myocardial work and loading conditions."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Perhonen2001PrimaryMSII We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n 5) and 12 (n 3) wk of horizontal bed rest.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceMetabolic workload  "Two weeks of head-down-tilt bed rest leads to a smaller, less distensible left ventricle but a shift to a more compliant portion of the P-V curve. This results in a steeper Starling relationship, which contributes to orthostatic intolerance by causing an excessive reduction in SV during orthostasis."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Levine1997PrimaryMOIIbed rest testTwelve healthy subjects (11 men, 1 woman) with a mean age of 24 +/- 5 years (range, 18 to 35 years), height of 185 +/- 23 cm, and weight of 79 +/- 3 kg were studied.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "These symptoms [cardiovascular changes] are thought to be the result of a circulating blood volume too small to fill the potential vascular space and to maintain adequate perfusion pressures rather than a temporary defect in cardiac, vascular or venous function."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Johnson1979SecondaryMSIV  Spaceflight
CountermeasurePhysiologyCardiovascular SystemHeart RatePlasma volume  "A countermeasure which includes 4hr of LBNP treatment at -30 mmHg and the ingestion of one l. of saline was studied and found capable of returning the heart rate response and the PV of bedrested subjects to control (pre-bed rest) levels suggesting that it would be useful to the crewmembers after a spaceflight."1Saline injectionbed rest Medical  Johnson1979PrimaryMOIII Six subjects for each bed rest studyAnalog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic TolerancePlasma volume  "Only during the first few hours after return from weightlessness has the orthostatic intolerance been potentially problematic. It is during this period that the LBNP treatment combined with saline ingestion would be most effective. Perhaps that is all that is necessary in a post recovery countermeasure."1Saline injectionbed restSpaceflightMedical  Johnson1979PrimaryMOIII Six subjects for each bed rest studyAnalog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAnthropometricsWork capacity  "At the end of the training period the heart weight had increased by 65% but the weight ratio of the right and left ventricular wall remained unchanged. A decline in the DNA content by 27% as well as a decrease in the volume density of the interstitial space by 14% and in the number of interstitial cell nuclei by 32% against controls, are explained by a 30% increase in the width of myofibers. The capillary density was reduced by 22% but the volume density of capillaries remained nearly constant as a result of widening of the capillary diameter by 27%. The surface density of capillaries was diminished by 10%."1Exercise  Operational  Frenzel1988PrimaryMOIV 36 young female Wistar rats, body weight 213.5 ± 10.2g at beginning of study. Five hrs of swimming exercise/day, 6 days/wk, 1 day of rest. In the first week, training duration increased from 1h to 5h a day. 256 hrs total exercise, then rest. Food reduced from 15 g/day/animal to avoid increase in weight.Analog (animal)
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAnthropometricsHeart weight  "The study has shown that cardiac hypertrophy induced by physical training nearly completely regresses within 14 days after termination of conditioning. [...] The decline in heart weight and a significantly diminished RNA content during the regression of hypertrophy suggest that reduced synthesis is responsible for the decrease in heart weight."-1Deconditioning from exercise  Operational  Frenzel1989PrimaryMOIV 37 young female Wistar rats, body weight 213.5 ± 10.2g at beginning of study. Five hrs of swimming exercise/day, 6 days/wk, 1 day of rest. In the first week, training duration increased from 1h to 5h a day. 256 hrs total exercise, then rest. Food reduced from 15 g/day/animal to avoid increase in weight.Analog (animal)
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAnthropometricsHeart weight  "Heart weight, total protein content, and total cytochrome c content decreased rapidly initially, with 60% of the total regression of hypertrophy occuring during the first week. Thereafter, heart weight feel more gradually toward the sedentary control value. The hydroxyproline content of the heart, which was increased 10%, did not decrease during the regression of the hypertrophy."-1Deconditioning from exercise  Operational  Hickson1979PrimaryMOIV 64 adult female specific-pathogen-free Wistar rats, housed in individual cages, fed on Purina chow and water. 6 months old at beginning of study. Exercise: swimming in steel barrels, 47 cm in diameter, filled to 60 cm of water 33C - 35C. Swam in groups of eight/barrel. 2hrx3 sessions w/ 30min rest and access to food and water. Exercised every day 7 days/week.Analog (animal)
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemCirculate Blood and Transports NutrientsOrthostatic tolerance  "The crew members of Skylab 4 performed a large amount of exercise in space and had less cardiovascular dysfunction postflight than the crew members of Skylab 2 and 3, who exercised less vigorously during their shorter missions."1ExerciseSpaceflight Operational  Blomqvist1983SecondaryMOII Skylab missions 2-4Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemAffective Mood StatePhysical workload  "Also, for cardiovascular conditioning, we worked out on the bicycle. We were glad we had that onboard because we always felt good after we used it."1ExerciseSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PsychologyResilienceMotivationMotivation  "But when one is working for a long time on the bike, 15, 20, 30 minutes or so at fairly high workloads, one needs mental diversion. If we had a window right by the bicycle, it would have been good."1Prolonged periods of exerciseSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PsychologyResilienceMotivationMotivation  "We did use a tape recorder and music and I found the music stimulated us and we could go a lot longer and harder with it. This small point changed the amount of exercise which we could consistently do."1Prolonged periods of exerciseSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PsychologyResilienceMotivationMotivation  "For us the ATM observations as well as the medical experiments were very enjoyable aspects of the flight. We became involved in understanding the objectives of the medical experiments and could see some progress towards these goals as the flight progressed."1Medical research/experimentsSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PsychologyBondingInterpersonal SkillsTeamwork  "These experiments were also made enjoyable by the people with whom we worked who were very cooperative during both the initial training and during the flight itself."1Cooperative teamSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 Psychology MotivationPsychological well-being  "Another effect of the food was from the Mineral Balance experiment m071 (ch. 18). It was a worthwhile experiment, but it certainly did have its impact on the food system. In the future, we'd like to see a food system where there would be more flexibility of choice in what one wants to eat, when one wants to eat it, and how one wants to season it. An open pantry versus a preplanned rigid diet such as we had would be an optimum situation from the crew operational standpoint."-1Food choicesSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemDigestion RateDigestion  "Second, we noticed, especially early in the mission, that we tended to get hungry in 3, 4, maybe 5 hours after a meal as opposed to the normal 6 to 7 hours as one does on Earth. We don't know whether that was an effect of zero-gravity or whether that effect was from charging real hard continuously the first couple of weeks."AEarly in spaceflight missionSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemDigestion RateDigestion  "We experienced hunger on two different occasions because of the types of diet we were on. In order to extend our mission from 56 to 84 days, we supplemented our meals with high-density food bars every third day. During those days, we had the same amount of minerals and number of calories as we had on other days, but the amount of food bulk was greatly reduced, so we ended up fairly hungry on every third day."-1Reducing food bulkSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PsychologyLeadershipLevel of TrainingWork efficiency  "To plan everything down to the last detail is the best way to fly that type of mission. Skylab, however, had very long missions. One had to become a jack-of-all-trades, and one had to use selective judgement in gathering data in several types of experiments. That implies, and indeed was the case in Skylab 4, that in-flight one needs a certain time to organize, especially early in the mission."-1Detailed mission planLong-duration spaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PsychologyLeadershipWorkloadWork efficiency  "Early in the mission something like 2 to 3 hours per day would have been useful to have as a time to get organized. Shopping list items could be used to fill any left over time. Allowing the crew to work up to their peak efficiency gradually versus trying to force them to work at a predicted efficiency should produce more effective results for the mission as a whole."1Allowing time to plan in early stages of missionLong-duration spaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCirculatory SystemOlfactory System HealthFluid shift  "Early in the flight we experienced a sensation of head fullness. This is caused by a shift of the body fluids to the upper part of the body when one first enters into zero-g. One notices that the eyes turn red which, in my case, happened after about a day or so. The eye sockets themselves become a little puffy, the face a little rounder and a little redder, veins in the neck and forehead become distended and one's sinuses feel congested."-1Fluid Shift  Environment  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCirculatory SystemComfortFluid shift  "These conditions did not change significantly in-flight, they just tapered off. They eyes gradually cleared but the congested sinuses, while not too bothersome, were always there. [...] The Commander and I noticed this feeling of head fullness and the accompanying symptoms for the first 2 weeks or so. For the last 2 weeks of the mission the Pilot felt good and essentially equivalent to 100 percent on the ground."0Fluid Shift  Environment  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
After exercisePsychology ComfortPsychological well-being  "Several variables were observed to affect the fluid symptoms and the sensation of head fullness. One was exercise. We always felt a lot better for about a half hour to 2 hours after we exercised on the bicycle. Perhaps the effect of just drawing the blood down into the larger muscles of the body took it away from the head and left it feeling clearer."1ExerciseFluid Shift Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryASIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
After eatingPhysiologyCirculatory SystemComfortFluid shift  "The Commander on our flight also experienced this lessening of fullness to some degree after eating."1EatingSpaceflight Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 5Spaceflight
Time of dayPhysiologyCirculatory SystemComfortFluid shift  "The last effect is associated with the time of day. As on Earth, if one is bothered by something, it always feels worse towards the end of the day; the same was true up there with the sensation of head fullness."-1Time of daySpaceflight Environmental  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 6Spaceflight
 PhysiologyAnthropometryAnthropometricsLeg Volume  "We were also able to see the leg volume changes because of the fluid shift. First of all, we could see the muscles shrink when we got up there. It was obvious to the eye, and it could be confirmed by measurements. A couple of times we measured the calf after exercise on the treadmill. It increased about a half-inch or so after a reasonable amount of exercise and then it shrank down fairly rapidly (15 to 30 minutes) as soon as we stopped."ASpaceflightExercise Environmental  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 7Spaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular SystemVestibular System FunctionMotion sickness  "The preflight T38 flying, [...] We did aileron rolls while putting our heads in one of six different orientations. Fifteen to 25 rolls in a row while putting the head down, to one side, or back, or one of the three opposite directions could greatly stress one's semicircular canals. We noticed significant improvement in our ability to tolerate vestibular stress (airplane and rotating chair) after we had made several flights."1FlightRolls with head movements Operational  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 7Spaceflight
 PhysiologyCardiovascular systemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "Most of the impairment of OT induced by a short bed rest period could be prevented with daily exposure to AG for 30 min. An intermittent protocol with six periods of 5 min AG was better tolerated than a protocol without breaks, and was also more effective."1Bed restArtificial gravity Operational  Linnarsson2014PrimaryMOII Eleven subjects were investigated during three campaigns of 5 days head-down bed rest: 1) bed rest without countermeasures (control), 2) bed rest and 30 min of AG (AG1) daily, and 3) bed rest and six periods of 5 min AG (AG2) daily. During centrifugation, the supine subjects were exposed to AG in the head-to-feet direction with 1 G at the center of mass. Subjects participated in the three campaigns in random order. The cardiovascular effects of bed rest and countermeasures were determined from changes in tolerance to a head-up tilt test with superimposed lower body negative pressure (HUT), from changes in plasma volume (PV) and from changes in maximum aerobic power (V̇o2peak) during upright work on a cycle ergometer. Complete data sets were obtained in eight subjects.Analog
 PhysiologyEndocrine systemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "Compared with astronauts who were not presyncopal on landing day, presyncopal astronauts had 1) significantly smaller pressor responses to phenylephrine both before and after flight; 2) significantly smaller baseline norepinephrine, but significantly greater DHPG levels, on landing day; 3) significantly greater norepinephrine release with tyramine on landing day; and 4) significantly smaller norepinephrine release, but significantly greater epinephrine and arginine vasopressin release, with upright tilt on landing day. These data suggest that the etiology of orthostatic hypotension and presyncope after spaceflight includes low 1-adrenergic receptor responsiveness before flight and a remodeling of the central nervous system during spaceflight such that sympathetic responses to baroreceptor input become impaired."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Meck2003PrimaryMOII "We studied 23 astronauts 10 days before launch, on landing day, and 3 days after landing. We measured pressor responses to phenylephrine injections; norepinephrine release with tyramine injections; plasma volumes; resting plasma levels of chromogranin A (a marker of sympathetic nerve terminal release), endothelin, dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG, an intracellular metabolite of norepinephrine); and lymphocyte 2-adrenergic receptors. We then measured hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses to upright tilt. Astronauts were separated into two groups according to their ability to complete 10 min of upright tilt on landing day."Spaceflight
 PhysiologyNervous and Endocrine SystemsOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "The baroreflex response via the aortic-carotid pathway is to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to release norepinephrine, which causes systemic vasoconstriction and increases cardiac contractility, thereby maintaining blood pressure. The baroreflex response via the cardiopulmonary pathway is to stimulate the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system which causes sodium and water reabsorption to maintain central blood volume and blood pressure. If the sympathetic nervous system and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are inhibited, orthostatic intolerance may occur."-1SpaceflightInhibited sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Environmental  Platts2015SecondaryQOIVPrimary source quotes to follow Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular systemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "In chronic autonomic failure, supine hypertension is linked to both OH and low baroreflex-cardiovagal gain. The finding of lower plasma NE levels in patients with than without supine hypertension suggests involvement of pressor mechanisms independent of the sympathetic nervous system."-1Supine Hypertension  Medical  Goldstein2003PrimaryMOII Data were analyzed from a total 61 consecutive, referred patients with neurogenic OH (data were excluded from 2 other patients with PAF deemed atypical because of neuroimaging evidence for intact cardiac sympathetic innervation).11 Eleven patients had PAF, 51 had PD (24 with OH, 27 without), and 34 had MSA (26 with OH, 8 without), Data were also included from ongoing databases of control subjects, including 32 middle-aged ( 45 years old) patients with essential hypertension, 12 middle-aged patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance, and 41 middle-aged, healthy volunteers. The healthy volunteers and patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance had about the same body mass as did the patients with OH; patients with essential hypertension had higher body mass (Table).Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular systemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance."-1Reduced plasma renin activity  Medical  Jacob1997PrimaryMSII Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied.Terrestrial Relevance
 PhysiologyCardiovascular system, Musculoskeletal systemSleep QualitySleep  "Physiological contributors to poor sleep and fatigue include a cephalad fluid shift and back pain."-1Fluid Shift  Environment  Scheuring2014SecondaryASIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologySleepSleep QualitySleep  "Physiological contributors to poor sleep and fatigue include a cephalad fluid shift and back pain."-1Back Pain  Medical  Scheuring2014SecondaryASIV  Spaceflight
 PhysiologyVestibular SystemSpatial OrientationBalance, orientation  "When moving around those vehicles, I attached no direction to my motion at all. But, after I looked out the window for a long period of time, in particular the window for the Earth Resources Experiment Package, and then moved away from the window and looked from the multiple docking adapter to the airlock, I strongly felt that I was looking 'down.' In the back of my mind I said, 'I'm going to fall if I don't hold on.'"-1SpaceflightWindow Environment  Johnston1977PrimaryQSIII Skylab 4Spaceflight
Observed thirst during missionPhysiologyCardiovascular systemOrthostatic ToleranceFluid shift Headward fluid shift"We all felt very thirsty on the recovery ship despite the fact that we had really forced the fluids before we returned. This was an expected reaction."-1SpaceflightReturn to 1G-EnvironmentEarth-gravity environmentFeeling of thirstJohnston1977PrimaryQSIIIObservations by flight engineerSkylab 4Spaceflight
Observed fingernail growthPhysiologyIntegumentary SystemState of NailsFingernail growth Rate of fingernail growth"Many of us noticed, subjectively and without taking measurements, that the fingernails and toenails tended to grow a little bit slower in-flight. Rather than trimming them once a week, it was on the order of once a month or so."0Spaceflight--EnvironmentMicrogravityVisual observation of nail growthJohnston1977PrimaryQSIIIObservations by flight engineerSkylab 4Spaceflight
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"By contrast, in our study, reaction and action times were not affected by the gravity level. This difference may be due to the effect of the anti-motion sickness medication."00gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)-Environment/Medical0g and anti-motion sickness medicationGravity variabilityArtiles2018PrimaryMOI-six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication."00gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)-Environmental/Medical0g and anti-motion sickness medicationGravity variabilityArtiles2018PrimaryMOI-six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVisual SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight."00gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVisual SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication."00gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVisual SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight."01gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVisual SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication." 1gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVisual SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight." 1.8gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVisual SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication." 1.8gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight."00gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication."00gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight."01gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication." 1gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight." 1.8gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyProprioceptive SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication." 1.8gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight."00gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication."00gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight." 1gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication." 1gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"In inverted vision, the reaction and action times increased, and the direction of pointing shifted upward compared to normal vision. These changes were not significant across gravity levels. This result suggests that the visual information was dominant over otolith and proprioception information during all phases of the flight." 1.8gInverted visionScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg)Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
Pointing task, parabolic flightPhysiologyVestibular SystemEye-hand CoordinationEye-hand coordination Ability to accurately distinguish spatial location of arm/hand in varying magnitudes of gravity"Shift in arm pointing in normal vision in our study were similar to those previously observed during orbital or parabolic flight, but the amplitude of these changes were not found to be significant across the gravity level. This difference may also be due to the effects of the anti-motion sickness medication." 1.8gScopolamine (0.01 mg/kg) Environmental/Medical  Artiles2018PrimaryMOIII six healthy subjects, 5 male, 1 female, ages 25-58, mean 34.3. Four subjects received an intramuscular injection of scopolamine before flight (0.01 mg/kg).Analog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemDigestion RateGastric emptying  "In general, delayed gastric emptying and depressed gastric secretion have been observed in humans following centrifugation."-1Centrifugation  Operational  Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMSIV  Analog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Severe gastric injury resulting from visceral displacement, including longitudinal tears along the mucosa and hemorrhage and congestion of the serosa, has been observed in bears subjected to abrupt linear deceleration. Bears have been utilized because of the ir anatomic similarities to man."-1Abrupt linear deceleration  Operational  Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMOIV BearsAnalog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Except for the low-level 'gravitational' (G) force that may be applied to some orbital space stations by rotation, G forces will be experienced only during launching and reentry of rockets. At these times the relatively high G forces will be limited to brief periods of time and to centrifuge-conditioned spaceflight personnel who are optimally positioned in the spacecraft. Since feeding will not be attempted during this time, gastroenterologic functional changes due to gravitational stress are not considered limiting to spaceflight."0G forcesReentry/launch Spaceflight  Pfeiffer1968PrimaryASIV From previous studiesAnalog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Animal experimentation has indicated that increased fecal output and decreased food intake in rats follow exposure to vibration of 25 cps for 15 min, and that gastrointestinal hemorrhage may occur in 75-day-old animals."-1Vibration  OperationalExperimental vibration Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMOIV RatsAnalog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Roman (1958) observed gastrointestinal bleeding in mice vibrated at 5-50 cps, which appeared to result from the shearing forces of abdominal displacement. It is probable that some of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage observed in vibrated small mammals simply reflects a nonspecific stress response to vibration."-1Vibration  OperationalExperimental vibration Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMOIV RatsAnalog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Human studies indicate that vibration at 25 cps for relatively short periods can induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and at 3, 4, and 6-10 cps can induce abdominal pain similar to 'gas pain.' Defecation urge and abdominal pain due to vibration have been reported by numerous other authors."-1Vibration  OperationalExperimental vibration Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMOIV HumansAnalog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Alvarez (1943) has reported numerous examples of digestive disturbances attributable to fatigue, such as nausea, flatulence, abdominal cramps, and inhibition of gastric secretion. Recently, Oliver (1963) reported flatulence, belching, anorexia, constipation, heartburn, vomiting, et cetera, in 57% of 100 ambulatory patients under treatment for chronic fatigue."-1Fatigue  Operational  Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMOIV HumansAnalog
 PhysiologyDigestive SystemGastric HealthGastric health  "Since it has been reported that corticoid excretion/body-surface area ratio increases in jet pilots during flights, it may be anticipated that similar increases in adrenal activity might occur during space flights."-1Fatigue  Operational  Pfeiffer1968SecondaryMeasuredOIV "Jet pilots"Analog
 PhysiologyImmune SystemAnthropometricsImmune health  "In response to flight, animals had a reduction in liver, spleen, and thymus masses compared with ground (GRD) controls (P < 0.005)."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Baqai2009PrimaryMeasuredOIV Female C57BL/6 mice, 7wks old, 48 total. 24 Flight, 24 Ground, 12 additional housed in standard vivarium conditions.Analog
 PhysiologyImmune SystemNumber of White Blood CellsImmune health  "Splenic lymphocyte, monocyte/macrophage, and granulocyte counts were significantly reduced in the flight (FLT) mice (P < 0.05)."-1Spaceflight  Environment  Baqai2010PrimaryMeasuredOIV Female C57BL/6 mice, 7wks old, 48 total. 24 Flight, 24 Ground, 12 additional housed in standard vivarium conditions.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "Midodrine was found to significantly ameliorate excessive decreases in blood pressure and presyncope during a provocative tilt test. We conclude that midodrine may be an effective countermeasure for the prevention of orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight."-1Bed restMedical Operational  Ramsdell2001PrimaryMeasuredOIV Fifteen male subjects in excellent health [age 􏰁 33.5 􏰂11.3 (SD) yr, height 􏰁 70 􏰂 2.4 (SD) in., weight 􏰁 76.8 􏰂 7.6 (SD) kg]; subjects then underwent -5-degree head-down-tilt bed rest for 9 (subject 1), 14 (subjects 2-4), or 16 days (subjects 5-15).Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "Centrifuge-induced artificial gravity with exercise is effective in preventing cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity exposure, however, an effective and appropriate regimen (magnitude of G-load and exercise workload) should be determined in future studies."-1Bed restArtificial GravityExerciseOperational  Iwase2005PrimaryMeasuredOII Subjects were 12 young men aged 20.7 ± 1.9 years, height 170 ± 5 cm, weight 65.8 ± 1.5 kg participating in a 14-day −6◦ head-down bed rest (HDBR) study, taking identical meals of 2000 kcal/day.Analog
 PhysiologyCardiovascular SystemOrthostatic ToleranceOrthostatic tolerance  "We conclude that AG can mitigate some aspects of bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning, including orthostatic intolerance and aerobic power. Mechanisms of improvement were not cardiac-mediated, but likely through improved sympathetic responsiveness to orthostatic stress."1Bed restArtificial GravityExerciseOperational  Stenger2012PrimaryMeasuredOIV 15 subjects, aged 26-58, 67-95 kgAnalog

Measures of Crew Health and Capability

The following tables capture the crew capabilities and health measures that are monitored throughout a space mission.

CapabilityImpact
Absorb NutrientsPhysiological
Abstract ReasoningCognitive
Alertness (Attention) (Vigilant Attention)Cognitive
Body Positioning (Balance)Physiological
BondingPsychological
Bone Remodeling/Bone StrengthPhysiological
Brightness Detection and Discrimination (Spatial Contrast Sensitivity)Physiological
CalmPsychological
Circulates Blood and Transports NutrientsPhysiological
Color DiscriminationPhysiological
ComfortPsychological
Control of Voluntary ResponsePhysiological
CopingPsychological
Decision Making (Evaluation) (Risk Decision Making)Cognitive
Delayed GratificationPsychological
Depth Perception and DiscriminationPhysiological
Detect and Fix MutationsPhysiological
Detect, Fight, and Remove Foreign ObjectsPhysiological
Detection and Discrimination of Angular AccelerationPhysiological
Detection and Discrimination of OdorsPhysiological
Detection and Discrimination of TastesPhysiological
Detection and Discrimination of TonePhysiological
Detection and Discrimination of VibrationPhysiological
Detection of Heat and ColdPhysiological
Digest Biological MaterialsPhysiological
Discrimination of Force Against LimbPhysiological
Discrimination of Limb Movement and LocationPhysiological
Discrimination of Sound Intensity (Absolute Threshold of Hearing)Physiological
Emotion IdentificationPsychological
Eye-hand Coordination (Continuous-Adjustment Control (tracking))Physiological
Field of View & Field of Regard (Peripheral Visual Detection and Discrimination)Physiological
Fine Motor Control (Arm/Hand/Finger Manipulation)Physiological
HumorPsychological
Interpersonal SkillsPsychological
Language ComprehensionCognitive
Language ProductionPhysiological
LeadershipPsychological
LocomotionPhysiological
Logical Reasoning (Convergent (Trouble-shooting) Production)Cognitive
MotivationPsychological
Pattern Recognition (Spatial Cognition)Cognitive
PersistencePsychological
Problem Solving (Divergent Production)Cognitive
Production and Application of ForcePhysiological
Production of EmotionPsychological
Protect and Fight MicroorganismsPhysiological
Regulate Body TemperaturePhysiological
Remove CO2 Waste ProductPhysiological
Remove Digested Waste Products (Urea and Fecal Matter)Physiological
ResiliencePsychological
Retrieval and ProcessingCognitive
Sensory-Motor Speed (Control of Speed of Motion) (Enteric Nervous System)Physiological
Situational AwarenessCognitive
SleepPhysiological
Sound (Auditory) LocalizationPhysiological
Spatial Learning and Memory (Retrieval and Processing)Cognitive
Spatial Orientation (Equilibrium, Orientation and Attitude Discrimination)Physiological
Store EnergyPhysiological
Tactile Perception (Detection of Light Touch)Physiological
Tactile Recognition of Shape and TexturePhysiological
Temporal Contrast SensitivityPhysiological
ThoughtfulPsychological
Visual AccommodationPhysiological
Visual AcuityPhysiological
Visual Control (Complex Scanning and Visual Tracking)Physiological
VocalizationPhysiological
Working Memory (Memory, Storing Information)Cognitive
WorkloadCognitive

Capabilities

Crew Capabilities are the functional abilities of the crewmember.

Health StatusImpact
Affective Mood StatePsychological
Alertness LevelCognitive
Auditory System HealthPhysiological
Blood PressurePhysiological
Bone StrengthPhysiological
Brain and Nervous System FunctionPhysiological
CO2 Level in BloodPhysiological
Core Body TemperaturePhysiological
Digestion RatePhysiological
Endocrine System FunctionPhysiological
Energy StoresPhysiological
Fatigue/Sleepiness LevelCognitive
Gastric HealthPhysiological
Gustatory System HealthPhysiological
Heart Rate (Heart and Circulatory System Function)Physiological
Heart Rate VariabilityPhysiological
Level of Training/KnowledgeCognitive
Measure of Immune FunctionPhysiological
Muscle StrengthPhysiological
Number of White Blood CellsPhysiological
Nutrition LevelPhysiological
O2 Level in Blood (Respiratory Function)Physiological
Olfactory System HealthPhysiological
Orthostatic TolerancePhysiological
Psychomotor ResponsePsychological
Skin TemperaturePhysiological
Sleep QualityPhysiological
Speech IntelligibilityCognitive
State of HairPhysiological
State of NailsPhysiological
State of SkinPhysiological
Tissue RegenerationPhysiological
Vestibular System FunctionPhysiological
Visual System HealthPhysiological
VO2 MaxPhysiological

Health Status

Crew Health is the crewmember’s bodily health or simply, the state of the human body..